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12个”禅僧”般的生活准则

12个”禅僧”般的生活准则

禅

 “每时每刻,我们都拥有比我们认为的更多的可能性”——Thich Nhat Hanh

我不是一个僧,也不打算成为一个僧。但是,我对他们的生活方式深有感触:生活简单,对每件事情的专注用心,安稳平静过每一天。

大概你不想成为一个僧,但是,遵循一些准则,你也能像禅僧一样去生活。

为什么要过禅僧般的生活呢?是因为我们不能再对生活多一点专注、平静和感受么?是因为数百年以来,“禅僧”们献身于在他们所做事情以及服务为众生当中。他们为我们的生活树立了榜样,至于我们是否要达到他们的高度并不重要。

我敬重的一个禅师是Thich Nhat Hanh,用几个字概括他那些准则是:“微笑、均匀的呼吸和慢走。”这就是生活最好的准则

但是,对那些想更详细的了解这些准则的人来说,我想,我应该分享我在尝试禅僧般生活中,发现一些非常有用的东西。我不是一个禅僧,甚至都不是一个禅宗信徒。但是,我发现,一些禅宗的准则可以应用到不同人的生活中,无所谓你的宗教信仰是什么,也不论你的生活标准为何。

“禅不是什么兴奋的东西,只是对日常生活的专注。” - Shunryu Suzuki

一、一次只做一件事

Zen Habits的长期读者将会很熟悉这条准则(以及下面的其他一些准则),这是我人生哲学的组成部分,也是禅僧们生活方式的一部分:一次只做一件事情。你,倒水时,倒水;吃饭时,吃饭;洗澡时,洗澡!不要在吃饭或洗澡时做别的事。禅经有云:“走路时,走路;吃饭时,吃饭!”

二、做事要慢,要深思熟虑

你能一次只做一件事情了,但不要匆促行事,而是要从容不迫,慢慢的行进,每一步都要深思熟虑,不要仓猝和随意。这需要苦练,但确实能让你精力集中在当前的事情上。

三、做事要完整

把精力集中在你当前的事情上,在其完成之前不要开始另一件。如果由于某些原因,你不得不放下手中的事情去做别的,至少先把手中未完成的事情先整理好。做好了一个三明治,先不要吃,先把制作三明治的工具收拾好,把桌子擦干净,把碟子洗干净,完后再吃。你只有做完了当前的事,才能够专注地去做另一件事。

四、做的事情少一些

禅僧的生活并不懒散:他们起的很早,一天有许多工作等着去做,但也不是没完没了 —— 每一天,他只做一些应该做的事。如果做的事情少一些,你就能把这些事情做的更慢一些,做更完整一些,更专注一些。如果一天满满当当的都是要做的事情,你就会急匆匆的一件接着一件,而无法停下来想想自己在做什么。

五、事情之间要有空余时间

这与“做的事情少一些”准则有些关联,是一种行程表管理的方法,让你总是有足够的时间完成每件事情。不要把事情安排的一件接一件,而是,在事与事之间留些空余时间。这让你拥有一个更宽松的行程表,给那些超时事情留有回旋的余地。

六、培养仪式

从吃饭到冥想,禅僧们做许多事情都有仪式。仪式会让你有一种重要感,如果事情重要到要有一套仪式,那么它也会重要到需要你全身心地去投入,慢慢的、正确地去做。不必去学习禅僧的那些仪式,你可以培养你自己的,无论是做饭,吃饭,打扫卫生,开始工作,起床,上床睡觉,甚至是开始锻炼,任何你想培养仪式的事情上都可以培养仪式。

七、为每件事情规划好时间

每一天,禅僧会在特定的时间完成特定的事情:特定的时间洗澡,特定的时间干活,特定的时间打扫,特定的吃饭。如此,确保他们能规律的去做这些事情。你也可以这么做,无论是工作,打扫,锻炼,还是静思。如果一件事情有必要成为规律,那就为它安排一个时间吧。

八、花一些时间静坐冥想

对禅僧而言,静坐冥想是他们每天生活中最重要的部分之一。每天,他们都有一个特定的时间是用来打坐的。冥想是一种学习把握现在的练习,你该花一些时间用来静坐冥想,或者做我所做的:我把跑步当作练习活在当下的一种方式。同样的,你可以利用任何形式,只要你有规律的去做,去练习活在当下。

九、微笑,为他人服务

禅僧们每天都会花时间为他人服务,不管是寺院里的人,还是寺院外的人。这样做教会了他们做人要谦逊,让他们不要只为自己,也要为他人。如果你已成家,那么已经为家里其他人做过点什么了,没成家的也能为家里做点什么。同样的,微笑和善待别人能改善你周围人的生活,当然,去做义工也可以。

十、把打扫和做饭变成冥想

除了前文提到的打坐之外,清扫和做饭也是禅僧一天生活的重要组成部分。这两个都是练习感受生活的好方法,也是每天都能做的很好的仪式。如果做饭和清扫这种零碎活让你厌烦,你可以尝试把它们当作冥想的形式。全身心地投入到这类事情里,专心地,慢慢地,完整地去做。这有可能会改变你一天的生活(也会让你的房屋更干净)。

十一、思考什么是必要的

禅僧的生活中很少有什么是必要的。他们没有满橱柜的鞋子或者流行服饰;他们没有满冰箱或者橱柜的垃圾食物;他们没有时尚装饰、汽车、电视、或者iPod。他们只有一些简单的衣物,简陋的房子,生活必须的装饰和工具,还有就是普通的饮食(他们吃得很简单,都是素食,如青菜、米饭、清汤和咸菜)。我不是让你真的像僧人一样去生活,我自己也不会,但是这提醒了我们,生活中,我们有太多的东西不必要。我们要想一想,什么是我们真正的需要,以拥有那些我们不需要的东西是不是真正很重要,这很有意义。

十二、过简单的生活

第十一条规则的推论就是,离开那些不重要的东西,你一样可以过日子。过简单的生活,就是让你尽可能多的丢弃那些你生活中不重要、也没有必要的东西,给重要的东西腾出空间。当然,什么是重要的,见仁见智。对我来说,家庭、写作、跑步,还有阅读,这都是重要的。对其他人来说,瑜伽,与亲近的朋友呆在一起也许是重要的。对另外一些人而言,重要的也许就是养育什么,志愿者工作,去教堂礼拜,或者是收集漫画书。没人规定什么就是重要的,你应该自己决定你生活中最重要的是什么,然后剔除那些不重要的,给那些重要的创造空间。

“Before enlightenment, chop wood and carry water. After enlightenment, chop wood and carry water.” - Wu Li
古侯子:这句没看懂,包括后面的认命,哪位给斟酌斟酌?

12 Essential Rules to Live More Like a Zen Monk

We have more possibilities available in each moment than we realize.” - Thich Nhat Hanh

I’m not a Zen monk, nor will I ever become one. However, I find great inspiration in the way they try to live their lives: the simplicity of their lives, the concentration and mindfulness of every activity, the calm and peace they find in their days.

You probably don’t want to become a Zen monk either, but you can live your life in a more Zen-like manner by following a few simple rules.

Why live more like a Zen monk? Because who among us can’t use a little more concentration, tranquility, and mindfulness in our lives? Because Zen monks for hundreds of years have devoted their lives to being present in everything they do, to being dedicated and to serving others. Because it serves as an example for our lives, and whether we ever really reach that ideal is not the point.

One of my favorite Zen monks, Thich Nhat Hanh, simplified the rules in just a few words: “Smile, breathe and go slowly.” It doesn’t get any better than that.

However, for those who would like a little more detail, I thought I’d share some of the things I’ve discovered to work very well in my experiments with Zen-like living. I am no Zen master … I am not even a Zen Buddhist. However, I’ve found that there are certain principles that can be applied to any life, no matter what your religious beliefs or what your standard of living.

“Zen is not some kind of excitement, but concentration on our usual everyday routine.” - Shunryu Suzuki
  1. Do one thing at a time. This rule (and some of the others that follow) will be familiar to long-time Zen Habits readers. It’s part of my philosophy, and it’s also a part of the life of a Zen monk: single-task, don’t multi-task. When you’re pouring water, just pour water. When you’re eating, just eat. When you’re bathing, just bathe. Don’t try to knock off a few tasks while eating or bathing. Zen proverb: “When walking, walk. When eating, eat.”
  2. Do it slowly and deliberately. You can do one task at a time, but also rush that task. Instead, take your time, and move slowly. Make your actions deliberate, not rushed and random. It takes practice, but it helps you focus on the task.
  3. Do it completely. Put your mind completely on the task. Don’t move on to the next task until you’re finished. If, for some reason, you have no choice but to move on to something else, try to at least put away the unfinished task and clean up after yourself. If you prepare a sandwich, don’t start eating it until you’ve put away the stuff you used to prepare it, wiped down the counter, and washed the dishes used for preparation. Then you’re done with that task, and can focus more completely on the next task.
  4. Do less. A Zen monk doesn’t lead a lazy life: he wakes early and has a day filled with work. However, he doesn’t have an unending task list either — there are certain things he’s going to do today, an no more. If you do less, you can do those things more slowly, more completely and with more concentration. If you fill your day with tasks, you will be rushing from one thing to the next without stopping to think about what you do.
  5. Put space between things. Related to the “Do less” rule, but it’s a way of managing your schedule so that you always have time to complete each task. Don’t schedule things close together — instead, leave room between things on your schedule. That gives you a more relaxed schedule, and leaves space in case one task takes longer than you planned.
  6. Develop rituals. Zen monks have rituals for many things they do, from eating to cleaning to meditation. Ritual gives something a sense of importance — if it’s important enough to have a ritual, it’s important enough to be given your entire attention, and to be done slowly and correctly. You don’t have to learn the Zen monk rituals — you can create your own, for the preparation of food, for eating, for cleaning, for what you do before you start your work, for what you do when you wake up and before you go to bed, for what you do just before exercise. Anything you want, really.
  7. Designate time for certain things. There are certain times in the day of a Zen monk designated for certain activities. A time for for bathing, a time for work, a time for cleaning, a time for eating. This ensures that those things get done regularly. You can designate time for your own activities, whether that be work or cleaning or exercise or quiet contemplation. If it’s important enough to do regularly, consider designating a time for it.
  8. Devote time to sitting. In the life of a Zen monk, sitting meditation (zazen) is one of the most important parts of his day. Each day, there is time designated just for sitting. This meditation is really practice for learning to be present. You can devote time for sitting meditation, or do what I do: I use running as a way to practice being in the moment. You could use any activity in the same way, as long as you do it regularly and practice being present.
  9. Smile and serve others. Zen monks spend part of their day in service to others, whether that be other monks in the monastery or people on the outside world. It teaches them humility, and ensures that their lives are not just selfish, but devoted to others. If you’re a parent, it’s likely you already spend at least some time in service to others in your household, and non-parents may already do this too. Similarly, smiling and being kind to others can be a great way to improve the lives of those around you. Also consider volunteering for charity work.
  10. Make cleaning and cooking become meditation. Aside from the zazen mentioned above, cooking and cleaning are to of the most exalted parts of a Zen monk’s day. They are both great ways to practice mindfulness, and can be great rituals performed each day. If cooking and cleaning seem like boring chores to you, try doing them as a form of meditation. Put your entire mind into those tasks, concentrate, and do them slowly and completely. It could change your entire day (as well as leave you with a cleaner house).
  11. Think about what is necessary. There is little in a Zen monk’s life that isn’t necessary. He doesn’t have a closet full of shoes, or the latest in trendy clothes. He doesn’t have a refrigerator and cabinets full of junk food. He doesn’t have the latest gadgets, cars, televisions, or iPod. He has basic clothing, basic shelter, basic utensils, basic tools, and the most basic food (they eat simple, vegetarian meals consisting usually of rice, miso soup, vegetables, and pickled vegetables). Now, I’m not saying you should live exactly like a Zen monk — I certainly don’t. But it does serve as a reminder that there is much in our lives that aren’t necessary, and it can be useful to give some thought about what we really need, and whether it is important to have all the stuff we have that’s not necessary.
  12. Live simply. The corollary of Rule 11 is that if something isn’t necessary, you can probably live without it. And so to live simply is to rid your life of as many of the unnecessary and unessential things as you can, to make room for the essential. Now, what is essential will be different to each person. For me, my family, my writing, my running and my reading are essential. To others, yoga and spending time with close friends might be essential. For others it will be nursing and volunteering and going to church and collecting comic books. There is no law saying what should be essential for you — but you should consider what is most important to your life, and make room for that by eliminating the other less essential things in your life.
“Before enlightenment chop wood and carry water. After enlightenment, chop wood and carry water.” - Wu Li

引文来源  12 Essential Rules to Live More Like a Zen Monk | Zen Habits

文章修改记录:

2008.12.16,文章初稿

作者:古侯子
言出必行、知行合一
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       12个”禅僧”般的生活准则:目前有8 条留言
      1. 喜欢看书,希望做个友情链接

        2008-12-16 12:45 上午 [回复]
      2. 板凳
        hellen:

        真的很难做, 从第一条“一次只做一件事”开始我现在就做不了, 有时候在想现在快节奏的生活都把我们变得浮躁, 无法享受日常的喜悦了^^ 在快节奏的环境中保持心里的平静需要下点功夫。
        我现在在练瑜伽中获得了一些平静,而且我相信这份平静会逐渐改变我。

        P.S. 侯子, 写一篇你对选择的感悟吧, 期待精彩的文章哦^&^

        2008-12-16 8:42 上午 [回复]
      3. 我记得以前有位官员问过禅宗某派大师—-忘记名字了。
        问:我见别的和尚都日夜念佛,怎么不见大师在修行啊?
        答:我们正在修行啊。

        吃饭是修行,日常生活就是修行啊

        2008-12-16 10:00 下午 [回复]
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