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快乐是种选择

快乐是种选择

古侯子:这不算一篇学术性的文章,却有不少的术语,理解起来困难,翻译起来费劲!又是金山,又是百度,还有谷歌的,一个晚上全部孝敬在这一篇文章上面了,最后对这篇翻译也不满意,总觉得翻译的不到位。不过,了解了一些东西,算是不虚此行吧!也发现,侯子的功底实在不够,英文不过关,中文也不够好,不是理解的不对,就是理解了,自己表达不出来。某种意义上说,翻译也是一种创造,一种艺术,而不是简简单单的一种语言与另一种语言的对应而已。

快乐·选择

快乐是种选择

快乐,还是不快乐,都由你自己选择!”——Stephen Covey

我们想要快乐,努力争取快乐,我们嫉妒那些快乐的人。我们以为只要变得更富有,更苗条,结婚后或者离婚后,变得更年轻或者更成熟,找到梦寐以求的工作,或者辞掉糟糕的工作,我们会看到快乐。

然而,你知道么,有多少人,已经拥有了想要的一切,却仍然渴望真正的快乐?我所谈论的快乐,是来自你的内心,而不是取决于你的地位、职位、财富或者你所拥有。对每个人而言,快乐是都充足的自然资源,快乐是种选择。

以往的研究认为生活经历不能改变你的头脑。最新的心理学、神经学和化学的研究成果指出,快乐是可以获得的,通过主动的选择你的想法,头脑也可以改变。

研究快乐的专家给快乐一个昵称:主观幸福感。一个人的地狱,也许是另一个人的天堂。比如说,对我而言,蹦极是难以忍受的痛苦折磨,而对我一个喜欢刺激的朋友而言,这意味着极大的乐趣。很明显,我们对幸福的设置值基于不同的主观标准。

每个人出生时,就带有基因编码的快乐“设定值”,它不完全的取决于我们的经历。这就解释了,为什么一些人在大多数时候自然而然的快乐,而另一些人总是一幅愁眉苦脸,他们的遗传特性部分决定了他们的外在表现。但是,尼苏达大学名誉心理学教授David Lykken认为,快乐受遗传因素的影响,但不由其完全决定。练习可以改变大脑的结构。你的祖辈赐予你的基因能带给你快乐,如果你想得到比这更多的快乐,你得每天学习去做那些能提高你快乐“设定值”的事情,而不要做那些降低你快乐“设定值”的事。

一项关于成长在不同环境下的双胞胎的研究指出,个体的快乐“设定值”50%的决定了他是否倾向快乐。换句话说,一些人,即使是在不太理想的环境下,仍旧快乐;而另一些人,就算是拥有了一切,还是一样的不开心。

ED Diener,伊利诺斯大学心理学教授,幸福研究期刊的联合  编辑人。他指出,一些工具可用来提高主观福利。下面是一些例子:

  • 充足的睡眠
  • 足够的锻炼
  • 培养亲密关系——保持联系,身体接触
  • 保持乐观的看法——选择积极的想法
  • 坚持写感恩日记
  • 原谅他人,放下怨恨
  • 利用标志性品质(诚实,友善,足智多谋,热爱学习等等)去做更“伟大”一些的事情,而不仅仅是为了你自己。
  • 面带微笑,让自己表现的快乐。
  • 冥想 冥想是提高主观幸福感的一个非常有效的方法。威斯康辛州大学的心理学教授,Richard Davidson在他的研究中发现,左前额部位的大脑皮层的高度活动,意味着感受快乐、愉悦和警戒的情绪。而右前额部分大脑皮层的活动反映了伤心、焦虑和担忧的情绪。研究认为,冥想产生更多的左脑活动,是一种能够产生更多积极情绪的方法。

即使是在艰难困苦当中,你也可以使用上面列出的工具,来体验到简单的快乐。

Happiness is a Choice

"Happiness, like unHappiness, is a proactive choice."   - Stephen Covey

We want it. We strive for it. We envy others who have it. We can see it just beyond the horizon …as soon as we get richer, thinner, married, divorced, younger, older, find a dream job, or quit a lousy one.

Yet, how many people do you know who “have everything” and still yearn for true happiness? The kind of happiness I'm talking about is that kind that comes from within and is not based on status, position, wealth, or possessions. It's a natural resource that is readily available to all. Happiness is a choice.

It had previously been thought that the brain is unchanged by life experiences. Recent breakthroughs in psychology, neurology, and chemistry have revealed that Happiness is attainable, and the brain can actually change as a result of conscious selection of thoughts.

Experts in the field have given Happiness a nickname -- “subjective well-being.” One person's Hell may be Paradise for another. For example, bungee jumping would be sheer torture for me to endure. For a thrill-seeker friend of mine, this activity represents ultimate joy. Clearly our set points are based on different subjective criteria.

Each of us is born with a genetically coded happiness “set point” which is not based entirely on what happens to us. This explains why some people are naturally cheerful most of the time, while others walk around with a permanent scowl on their faces – determined in part by their genetic predisposition. However, according to University of Minnesota professor emeritus of psychology David Lykken, “Happiness is genetically influenced, although it is not genetically fixed. The brain's structure can be modified through practice. If you really want to be happier than your grandparents provided for in your genes, you have to learn the kinds of things you can do, day by day, to bounce your set point up and avoid the things that bounce it down.”

A study conducted with identical twins raised in different environments suggests that an individual's set point determines about 50% of their disposition to Happiness. In other words, some people are happy , regardless of their less-than-ideal circumstances, while others are unhappy , even when they seem to “have it all.”

According to Ed Diener, a professor of psychology at the University of Illinois and coeditor of the Journal of Happiness Studies , a number of tools can be used to raise subjective well-being. Here are some examples:

  • Getting enough sleep
  • Getting enough exercise
  • Nurturing close relationships -- connection, physical touch
  • Maintaining an optimistic outlook – choosing positive thoughts
  • Keeping a gratitude journal
  • Forgiving others and letting go
  • Utilizing signature strengths (honesty, kindness, ingenuity, love of learning, etc.) in service of something larger than yourself
  • Acting happy by changing your physiology -- Put on a happy smile!
  • meditation meditation is a very effective way to change subjective well-being. Richard Davidson, professor of psychology at the University of Wisconsin, found in his research that high levels of activity at the left frontal area of the cerebral cortex coincided with feelings of Happiness, joy, and alertness. Activity on the right frontal area corresponded to feelings of sadness, anxiety, and worry. Since meditation generates more left-brain activity, studies have concluded that it offers a way to produce more positive emotion.

Even in the midst of hardship, one can experience simple pleasures by using some of the tools listed above.

引文来源  Happiness is a Choice-Happiness

文章修改记录:

2008.12.12,文章初稿

作者:古侯子
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       快乐是种选择:目前有5 条留言
      1. 地板
        左岸读书:

        一直快乐是很难的!但如何不悲伤是要学习的! 8)

        2008-12-12 12:42 下午 [回复]
      2. 板凳
        hellen:

        快乐可以自己选择的, 塞翁失马焉知非福, 其实每一件事情都可以朝另一个快乐的方向想, 重要的是你有乐观的态度。

        2008-12-12 1:16 下午 [回复]
      3. 沙发
        康俞妃:

        我也来顶一下..

        2015-12-22 4:12 上午 [回复]
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